Physical characteristics of metronidazole

buy now

Metronidazole is a powerful antibiotic known for its unique physical properties. This medication comes in a solid form, typically as tablets or capsules, and is used to treat a variety of bacterial and parasitic infections.

One of the key characteristics of metronidazole is its solubility in water, making it easy to administer orally or intravenously. In addition, this antibiotic is known for its distinctive yellow color, which helps distinguish it from other medications.

Explore the physical properties of metronidazole and discover its effectiveness in fighting infections.

General Properties and Usage

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication used to treat various infections caused by certain types of bacteria and parasites. It is commonly prescribed for the treatment of infections such as bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and certain types of ulcers caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

Metronidazole works by stopping the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms, as well as by preventing them from reproducing. It is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including anaerobic bacteria and certain protozoa.

Properties of Metronidazole:

Chemical Name: Metronidazole
Chemical Formula: C6H9N3O3
Molecular Weight: 171.16 g/mol
Route of Administration: Oral, topical, intravenous

Metronidazole is usually available in the form of tablets, capsules, creams, and intravenous solutions. It is important to follow your healthcare provider’s instructions carefully when taking metronidazole to ensure the best possible outcome and to minimize the risk of side effects.

See also  Metronidazole antabuse reaction

Chemical Structure and Formula

Metronidazole, also known as flagyl, has a chemical formula C₆H₉N₃O₃ and belongs to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics. Its chemical structure consists of a nitro group attached to an imidazole ring, which gives it its characteristic antimicrobial properties.

Physical Characteristics and Appearance

Metronidazole is a white to pale yellow crystalline powder that is practically odorless and has a bitter taste. It is soluble in water and alcohol, but practically insoluble in ether and chloroform.

The drug is available in various dosage forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous solutions. Tablets and capsules may vary in color, size, and shape, depending on the manufacturer.

Metronidazole solution for intravenous administration is a clear, colorless to slightly yellow solution. It should be visually inspected for particulate matter and discoloration before use, and any contaminated or expired solutions should be discarded.

Physical Characteristics and Appearance

Metronidazole is a white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder with a characteristic odor. It is sparingly soluble in water and ethanol but freely soluble in methanol. The drug is stable under normal conditions but may degrade in acidic or alkaline solutions.

Solubility and Stability

Metronidazole is a water-soluble antibiotic that is stable in acidic conditions. It is easily soluble in water and ethanol, but its solubility decreases in basic solutions. The stability of metronidazole is affected by factors such as temperature, light, and pH.

Metronidazole should be stored in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight to maintain its stability. It should be kept in its original packaging and away from moisture to prevent degradation. Avoid exposing metronidazole to extreme temperatures, as this can affect its effectiveness and shelf life.

See also  Metronidazole treat boils

When preparing metronidazole solutions for administration, it is important to use the appropriate solvent and follow proper dilution instructions to ensure the stability and effectiveness of the medication. Do not mix metronidazole with incompatible drugs or solutions, as this can lead to precipitation or degradation of the antibiotic.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Metronidazole is well absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations achieved in 1-3 hours. It has a bioavailability of approximately 100% and can reach therapeutic levels in various tissues and body fluids.

The drug is metabolized in the liver via oxidation and glucuronidation pathways. The major metabolites include the hydroxylated derivative and the glucuronide conjugate. These metabolites are usually inactive but may contribute to the elimination of the drug.

The elimination half-life of metronidazole is around 6-8 hours in healthy individuals, but it may be prolonged in patients with hepatic dysfunction. The drug is primarily excreted in the urine, with approximately 60-80% of the dose excreted unchanged and the remaining portion excreted as metabolites.

Metronidazole exhibits dose-proportional pharmacokinetics within the therapeutic range. However, the drug may accumulate in patients with renal impairment or end-stage renal disease, requiring dosage adjustment based on creatinine clearance.

Impact on Microorganisms

Impact on Microorganisms

Metronidazole exhibits a potent effect on various microorganisms, including anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, and some parasites. It disrupts the DNA structure and inhibits the synthesis of nucleic acids, leading to the death of susceptible microorganisms.

Mechanism of Action

Metronidazole enters the bacterial cell and undergoes a reduction process, forming active metabolites that can interact with DNA, causing strand breakage and cell death. This mechanism of action is particularly effective against anaerobic bacteria that rely on DNA synthesis for survival.

See also  Metronidazole gel chemist

Additionally, metronidazole has been shown to disrupt the electron transport chain in anaerobic bacteria, further contributing to its bactericidal effects. It also has activity against certain protozoa and parasites by disrupting their metabolic pathways and DNA function.